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使用Guzzle进行API测试

guzzle.png

本文将介绍Guzzle,Guzzle在单元测试中的使用。

来自Guzzle中文文档的解释:

Guzzle是一个PHP的HTTP客户端,用来轻而易举地发送请求,并集成到我们的WEB服务上。

  • 接口简单:构建查询语句、POST请求、分流上传下载大文件、使用HTTP cookies、上传JSON数据等等。
  • 发送同步或异步的请求均使用相同的接口。
  • 使用PSR-7接口来请求、响应、分流,允许你使用其他兼容的PSR-7类库与Guzzle共同开发。
  • 抽象了底层的HTTP传输,允许你改变环境以及其他的代码,如:对cURL与PHP的流或socket并非重度依赖,非阻塞事件循环。
  • 中间件系统允许你创建构成客户端行为。
$client = new GuzzleHttp\Client();
$res = $client->request('GET', 'https://api.github.com/user', [
    'auth' => ['user', 'pass']
]);
echo $res->getStatusCode();
// "200"
echo $res->getHeader('content-type');
// 'application/json; charset=utf8'
echo $res->getBody();
// {"type":"User"...'

// 发送一个异步请求
$request = new \GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org');
$promise = $client->sendAsync($request)->then(function ($response) {
    echo 'I completed! ' . $response->getBody();
});
$promise->wait();

安装Guzzle

使用composer安装

php composer.phar require guzzlehttp/guzzle:~6.0

或者编辑项目的composer.json文件,添加Guzzle作为依赖

 {
   "require": {
      "guzzlehttp/guzzle": "~6.0"
   }
}

执行 composer update

Guzzle基本使用

  • 发送请求
use GuzzleHttp\Client;

$client = new Client([
    // Base URI is used with relative requests
    'base_uri' => 'http://httpbin.org',
    // You can set any number of default request options.
    'timeout'  => 2.0,
]);

$response = $client->get('http://httpbin.org/get');
$response = $client->delete('http://httpbin.org/delete');
$response = $client->head('http://httpbin.org/get');
$response = $client->options('http://httpbin.org/get');
$response = $client->patch('http://httpbin.org/patch');
$response = $client->post('http://httpbin.org/post');
$response = $client->put('http://httpbin.org/put');


  • 设置查询字符串
$response = $client->request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org?foo=bar');

或使用 query 请求参数来声明查询字符串参数:

$client->request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org', [
    'query' => ['foo' => 'bar']
]);
  • 设置POST表单

传入 form_params 数组参数

$response = $client->request('POST', 'http://httpbin.org/post', [
    'form_params' => [
        'field_name' => 'abc',
        'other_field' => '123',
        'nested_field' => [
            'nested' => 'hello'
        ]
    ]
]);
  • 使用响应
# 状态码
$code = $response->getStatusCode(); // 200
$reason = $response->getReasonPhrase(); // OK

# header
// Check if a header exists.
if ($response->hasHeader('Content-Length')) {
    echo "It exists";
}

// Get a header from the response.
echo $response->getHeader('Content-Length');

// Get all of the response headers.
foreach ($response->getHeaders() as $name => $values) {
    echo $name . ': ' . implode(', ', $values) . "\r\n";
}

# 响应体
$body = $response->getBody();
// Implicitly cast the body to a string and echo it
echo $body;
// Explicitly cast the body to a string
$stringBody = (string) $body;
// Read 10 bytes from the body
$tenBytes = $body->read(10);
// Read the remaining contents of the body as a string
$remainingBytes = $body->getContents();

安装PHPUnit

同Guzzle的安装, 也适用Composer工具。

composer global require "phpunit/phpunit=5.5.*"

或者在composer.json文件中声明对phpunit/phpunit的依赖

{
    "require-dev": {
        "phpunit/phpunit": "5.5.*"
    }
}

执行安装

API 单元测试

我们在tests\unit\MyApiTest.php中定义了两个测试用例


<?php class MyApiTest extends \PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase { protected $client; public function setUp() { $this->client = new \GuzzleHttp\Client( [ 'base_uri' => 'http://myhost.com', 'http_errors' => false, #设置成 false 来禁用HTTP协议抛出的异常(如 4xx 和 5xx 响应),默认情况下HTPP协议出错时会抛出异常。 ]); } public function testAction1() { $response = $this->client->get('/api/v1/action1'); $body = $response->getBody(); //添加测试 $this->assertEquals(200, $response->getStatusCode()); $data = json_decode($body, true); $this->assertArrayHasKey('errorno', $data); $this->assertArrayHasKey('errormsg', $data); $this->assertArrayHasKey('data', $data); $this->assertEquals(0, $data['errorno']); $this->assertInternalType('array', $data['data']); } public function testAction2() { $response = $this->client->post('/api/v1/action2', [ 'form_params' => [ 'name' => 'myname', 'age' => 20, ], ]); $body = $response->getBody(); //添加测试 $this->assertEquals(200, $response->getStatusCode()); $data = json_decode($body, true); $this->assertArrayHasKey('errorno', $data); $this->assertArrayHasKey('errormsg', $data); $this->assertArrayHasKey('data', $data); $this->assertEquals(0, $data['errorno']); $this->assertInternalType('array', $data['data']); } }

运行测试

在项目根目录执行命令

php vendor/bin/phpunit  tests/unit/MyApiTest.php

总结

通过Guzzle强大的功能,可以方便进行API单元测试。大家可以查看Guzzle文档,详细了解Guzzle的使用。

参考文档